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The use of diacritic marks is dropped in languages such as French, as well as symbols in Ethiopian languages. In his book, Txtng: the Gr8 Db8 which translates as "Texting: the Great Debate" , David Crystal states that texters in all eleven languages use "lol" "laughing out loud" , "u", "brb" "be right back" , and "gr8" "great" , all English-based shorthands.
The use of pictograms and logograms in texts are present in every language. They shorten words by using symbols to represent the word or symbols whose name sounds like a syllable of the word such as in 2day or b4. This is commonly used in other languages as well. Crystal gives some examples in several languages such as Italian sei , "six", is used for sei , "you are". There is also the use of numeral sequences, substituting for several syllables of a word and creating whole phrases using numerals.
For example, in French, a12c4 can be said as à un de ces quatres , "see you around" literally: "to one of these four [days] ". An example of using symbols in texting and borrowing from English is the use of. Whenever it is used in texting, its intended use is with the English pronunciation. Crystal gives the example of the Welsh use of in F , pronounced ataf, meaning "to me". In character-based languages such as Chinese and Japanese, numbers are assigned syllables based on the shortened form of the pronunciation of the number, sometimes the English pronunciation of the number.
In this way, numbers alone can be used to communicate whole passages, such as in Chinese, "" can be literally translated as "Hug hug you, kiss you, whole life, whole life I love you. American popular culture is also recognized in shorthand. The feeling of individualism and freedom makes texting more popular and a more efficient way to communicate. It originally began as a messaging system that would send out emergency information. But it gained immediate popularity with the public.
What followed is the SMS we see today, which is a very quick and efficient way of sharing information from person to person. Work by Richard Ling has shown that texting has a gendered dimension and it plays into the development of teen identity.
For most people, half of their texts go to 3 — 5 other people. Research by Rosen et al. in daily writing produced worse formal writing than those young adults who used fewer linguistic textisms in daily writing. However, the exact opposite was true for informal writing. This suggests that perhaps the act of using textisms to shorten communication words leads young adults to produce more informal writing, which may then help them to be better "informal" writers.
Due to text messaging, teens are writing more, and some teachers see that this comfort with language can be harnessed to make better writers. This new form of communication may be encouraging students to put their thoughts and feelings into words and this may be able to be used as a bridge, to get them more interested in formal writing.
Joan H. Lee in her thesis, What does txting do 2 language: The influences of exposure to messaging and print media on acceptability constraints ,  she associates exposure to text messaging with more rigid acceptability constraints. The thesis suggests that more exposure to the colloquial, Generation Text language of text messaging contributes to being less accepting of words.
In contrast, Lee found that students with more exposure to traditional print media such as books and magazines were more accepting of both real and fictitious words. The thesis, which garnered international media attention, also presents a literature review of academic literature on the effects of text messaging on language.
Texting has also been shown to have had no effect or some positive effects on literacy. According to Plester, Wood and Joshi and their research done on the study of 88 British 10—year-old children and their knowledge of text messages, "textisms are essentially forms of phonetic abbreviation" that show that "to produce and read such abbreviations arguably requires a level of phonological awareness and orthographic awareness in the child concerned.
Texting while driving leads to increased distraction behind the wheel and can lead to an increased risk of an accident. In , Liberty Mutual Insurance Group conducted a survey with more than teens from over 26 high schools nationwide.
One example of distraction behind the wheel is the Chatsworth train collision , which killed 25 passengers. The engineer had sent 45 text messages while operating the train.
The experiment found that texting while driving was more dangerous than being drunk. In , the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute released the results of an month study that involved placing cameras inside the cabs of more than long-haul trucks, which recorded the drivers over a combined driving distance of three million miles. The study concluded that when the drivers were texting, their risk of crashing was 23 times greater than when not texting.
Due to the proliferation of smart phone applications performed while walking, "texting while walking" or "wexting" is the increasing practice of people being transfixed to their mobile device without looking in any direction but their personal screen while walking.
First coined reference in in New York from Rentrak's chief client officer  when discussing time spent with media and various media usage metrics. Text messaging among pedestrians leads to increased cognitive distraction and reduced situation awareness, and may lead to increases in unsafe behaviour leading to injury and death.
It is unclear which processes may be affected by distraction, which types of distraction may affect which cognitive processes, and how individual differences may affect the influence of distraction. According to them, the addition of texting while walking with vision occluded increases the demands placed on the working memory system resulting in gait disruptions.
Texting on a phone distracts participants, even when the texting task used is a relatively simple one. investigated the effect of other cognitive tasks, such as engaging in conversations or cognitive tasks on a phone, and found that participants actually have reduced visual awareness.
The act of texting itself seems to impair pedestrians' visual awareness. It appears that the distraction produced by texting is a combination of both a cognitive and visual perceptual distraction.
supported some of these findings, particularly that those who text while walking significantly alter their gait. However, they also found that the gait pattern texters adopted was slower and more "protective", and consequently did not increase obstacle contact or tripping in a typical pedestrian context.
proposing to use machine learning to specifically detect incoming vehicles. Sexting is slang for the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive content between mobile devices using SMS. Sexting was reported as early as in The Sunday Telegraph Magazine ,  constituting a trend in the creative use of SMS to excite another with alluring messages throughout the day.
Although sexting often takes place consensually between two people, it can also occur against the wishes of a person who is the subject of the content. Celebrities such as Miley Cyrus , Vanessa Hudgens , and Adrienne Bailon have been victims of such abuses of sexting. com  suggested a trend of sexting and other seductive online content being readily shared between teens.
One in five teen girls surveyed 22 per cent —and 11 per cent of teen girls aged 13—16 years old—say they have electronically sent, or posted online, nude or semi-nude images of themselves.
One-third 33 per cent of teen boys and one-quarter 25 per cent of teen girls say they were shown private nude or semi-nude images.
According to the survey, sexually suggestive messages text, e-mail, and instant messaging were even more common than images, with 39 per cent of teens having sent or posted such messages, and half of the teens 50 per cent having received them.
A study that has received wide international media attention was conducted at the University of Utah Department of Psychology by Donald S. Strassberg, Ryan Kelly McKinnon, Michael Sustaíta and Jordan Rullo. They surveyed teenagers ages 14—18 and found that nearly 20 per cent of the students said they had sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone, and nearly twice as many said that they had received a sexually explicit picture.
Of those receiving such a picture, over 25 per cent indicated that they had forwarded it to others. In addition, of those who had sent a sexually explicit picture, over a third had done so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences if they got caught. Students who had sent a picture by cell phone were more likely than others to find the activity acceptable.
The authors conclude: "These results argue for educational efforts such as cell phone safety assemblies, awareness days, integration into class curriculum and teacher training, designed to raise awareness about the potential consequences of sexting among young people. Text messaging has affected students academically by creating an easier way to cheat on exams.
In December , a dozen students were caught cheating on an accounting exam through the use of text messages on their mobile phones. According to Okada , most Japanese mobile phones can send and receive long text messages of between and characters with graphics, video, audio, and Web links. Further, published research has established that students who text during college lectures have impaired memories of the lecture material compared to students who do not.
Spreading rumors and gossip by text message, using text messages to bully individuals, or forwarding texts that contain defamatory content is an issue of great concern for parents and schools.
Text "bullying" of this sort can cause distress and damage reputations. In some cases, individuals who are bullied online have committed suicide. Harding and Rosenberg argue that the urge to forward text messages can be difficult to resist, describing text messages as "loaded weapons". When a student sends an email that contains phonetic abbreviations and acronyms that are common in text messaging e.
In a study by Lewandowski and Harrington , participants read a student's email sent to a professor that either contained text-messaging abbreviations gr8, How R U?
or parallel text in standard English great, How are you? Specifically, abbreviation users were seen as less intelligent, responsible, motivated, studious, dependable, and hard-working.
These findings suggest that the nature of a student's email communication can influence how others perceive the student and their work. However, students have become aware of the reality that using these textisms and adaptations can negatively impact their professionalism.
Drouin and Davis surveyed American undergraduates in and found that three quarters of participants believed the use of textisms were not appropriate in formal messaging and writing. Text messaging has been a subject of interest for police forces around the world. One of the issues of concern to law enforcement agencies is the use of encrypted text messages. In , a British company developed a program called Fortress SMS which used bit AES encryption to protect SMS messages.
For example, Swedish police retrieved deleted texts from a cult member who claimed she committed a double murder based on forwarded texts she received. Several thieves have been caught and children have been found using the SMS Alerts.
The service has been expanding to other cities. The Boston Police Department asks citizens to send texts to make anonymous crime tips. Under some interpretations of sharia law , husbands can divorce their wives by the pronouncement of talaq.
In , a court in Malaysia upheld such a divorce pronouncement which was transmitted via SMS. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in that under the state constitution, police require a warrant before obtaining access to text messages without consent.
Texting has been used on a number of occasions with the result of the gathering of large aggressive crowds. SMS messaging drew a crowd to Cronulla Beach in Sydney resulting in the Cronulla riots. Not only were text messages circulating in the Sydney area but in other states as well Daily Telegraph. The volume of such text messages and e-mails also increased in the wake of the riot. Sutherland Shire Mayor directly blamed heavily circulated SMS messages for the unrest. The Narre Warren Incident, when a group of party goers attended a party at Narre Warren in Melbourne, Australia, and rioted in January , also was a response of communication being spread by SMS and Myspace.
Officials say it is an easy way of contacting the community or individuals for meetings or events. Between and the U. secretly created and funded a Twitter -like service for Cubans called ZunZuneo , initially based on mobile phone text message service and later with an internet interface.
The service was funded by the U. Agency for International Development through its Office of Transition Initiatives , who utilized contractors and front companies in the Cayman Islands, Spain and Ireland.
A longer-term objective was to organize "smart mobs" that might "renegotiate the balance of power between the state and society.
At its peak ZunZuneo had 40, Cuban users, but the service closed as financially unsustainable when U. funding was stopped. Text messaging has affected the political world. American campaigns find that text messaging is a much easier, cheaper way of getting to the voters than the door-to-door approach. The popular campaign against him was widely reported to have been coordinated with SMS chain letters. During the U.
Democratic and Republican National Conventions, protesters used an SMS-based organizing tool called TXTmob to get to opponents. Text messaging has helped politics by promoting campaigns. On 20 January , President Joseph Estrada of the Philippines became the first head of state in history to lose power to a smart mob. These people have organized themselves and coordinated their actions through text messaging. They were able to bring down a government without having to use any weapons or violence.
Through text messaging, their plans and ideas were communicated to others and successfully implemented. Also, this move encouraged the military to withdraw their support from the regime, and as a result, the Estrada government fell. Text messaging is a rapidly growing trend in Healthcare. Where messages could be saved to a phone indefinitely, patient information could be subject to theft or loss, and could be seen by other unauthorized persons. The HIPAA privacy rule requires that any text message involving a medical decision must be available for the patient to access, meaning that any texts that are not documented in an EMR system could be a HIPAA violation.
The excessive use of the thumb for pressing keys on mobile devices has led to a high rate of a form of repetitive strain injury termed "BlackBerry thumb" although this refers to strain developed on older Blackberry devices, which had a scroll wheel on the side of the phone. An inflammation of the tendons in the thumb caused by constant text-messaging is also called text-messager's thumb, or texting tenosynovitis.
Increasing cases of Internet addiction are now also being linked to text messaging, as mobile phones are now more likely to have e-mail and Web capabilities to complement the ability to text. Texting etiquette refers to what is considered appropriate texting behaviour.
One example from the site is: "Keep your message brief. No one wants to have an entire conversation with you by texting when you could just call him or her instead.
Typing a text message in all capital letters will appear as though you are shouting at the recipient, and should be avoided.
Expectations for etiquette may differ depending on various factors. For example, expectations for appropriate behaviour have been found to differ markedly between the U. and India. In The M-Factor: How the Millennial Generation Is Rocking the Workplace , Lynne Lancaster and David Stillman note that younger Americans often do not consider it rude to answer their cell or begin texting in the middle of a face-to-face conversation with someone else, while older people, less used to the behavior and the accompanying lack of eye contact or attention, find this to be disruptive and ill-mannered.
In , an increasing trend towards spamming mobile phone users through SMS prompted cellular-service carriers to take steps against the practice, before it became a widespread problem.
No major spamming incidents involving SMS had been reported as of March [update] , but the existence of mobile phone spam  has been noted by industry watchdogs including Consumer Reports magazine and the Utility Consumers' Action Network UCAN. In SMiShing, users receive SMS messages posing to be from a company, enticing users to phone premium-rate numbers or reply with personal information.
Similar concerns were reported by PhonepayPlus, a consumer watchdog in the United Kingdom, in Concerns have been voiced  over the excessive cost of off-plan text messaging in the United States. With service providers gaining more customers and expanding their capacity, their overhead costs should be decreasing, not increasing. In , text messaging generated nearly 70 billion dollars in revenue, as reported by Gartner, industry analysts, three times as much as Hollywood box office sales in World figures showed that over a trillion text messages were sent in Although major cellphone providers deny any collusion, fees for out-of-package text messages have increased, doubling from 10 to 20 cents in the United States between and alone.
While text messaging is still a growing market, traditional SMS is becoming increasingly challenged by alternative messaging services which are available on smartphones with data connections.
These services are much cheaper and offer more functionality like exchanging multimedia content e. photos, videos or audio notes and group messaging. Especially in western countries some of these services attract more and more users. Consumer SMS should not be used for confidential communication.
The contents of common SMS messages are known to the network operator's systems and personnel. Therefore, consumer SMS is not an appropriate technology for secure communications.
The advantage of this international termination model is the ability to route data directly through SS7 , which gives the provider visibility of the complete path of the SMS. This means SMS messages can be sent directly to and from recipients without having to go through the SMS-C of other mobile operators.
This approach reduces the number of mobile operators that handle the message; however, it should not be considered as an end-to-end secure communication, as the content of the message is exposed to the SMS gateway provider. An alternative approach is to use end-to-end security software that runs on both the sending and receiving device, where the original text message is transmitted in encrypted form as a consumer SMS. By using key rotation, the encrypted text messages stored under data retention laws at the network operator cannot be decrypted even if one of the devices is compromised.
A problem with this approach is that communicating devices needs to run compatible software. Failure rates without backward notification can be high between carriers. Differences in the character sets used for coding can cause a text message sent from one country to another to become unreadable. The Guinness Book of World Records has a world record for text messaging, currently held by Sonja Kristiansen of Norway.
Kristiansen keyed in the official text message, as established by Guinness, in In reality, they seldom attack a human. His record of Elliot Nicholls of Dunedin, New Zealand, currently holds the world record for the fastest blindfolded text messaging. A record of a letter text in 45 seconds while blindfolded was set on 17 November , beating the old record of 1-minute 26 seconds set by an Italian in September His accomplishments were first in the World Records Academy and later followed up by Ripley's Believe It Or Not Seeing Is Believing.
He has been acknowledged by The Universal Records Database for the most text messages in a single month; however, this has since been broken twice and as of was listed as messages by Fred Lindgren. In January , LG Electronics sponsored an international competition, the LG Mobile World Cup , to determine the fastest pair of texters. The winners were a team from South Korea, Ha Mok-min and Bae Yeong-ho.
As of , best time listed on Game Center for that paragraph is A few competitions have been held between expert Morse code operators and expert SMS users. For example, many Nokia mobile phones have an option to beep "S M S" in Morse code when it receives a short message. Some of these phones could also play the Nokia slogan "Connecting people" in Morse code as a message tone. Many sports arenas now offer a number where patrons can text report security concerns, like drunk or unruly fans, or safety issues like spills.
For instance, the patron doesn't need to leave his seat and miss the event in order to report something important. Also, disruptive fans can be reported with relative anonymity. For instance, a single complaint in one section about an unruly fan can be addressed when convenient, while multiple complaints by several different patrons can be acted upon immediately.
In this context, "tattle texting" refers to an automatic text sent by the computer in an automobile, because a preset condition was met. Employers can also use the service to monitor their corporate vehicles. The technology is still new and currently only available on a few car models. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Act of typing and sending a brief, digital message. For the TV series, see Pop-Up Video. For chatting in general, see online chat. Main article: Microblogging. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: SMS language.
Main article: Texting while driving. Main article: Sexting. Main article: Cyberbullying. Main article: BlackBerry thumb. Further information: Mobile phone spam. How Mobile Technology is Changing Our Culture. Telecommunication Journal. Retrieved 18 May Just over fifty years ago, in October , the Deutsche Reichspost as it was then known, opened the world's first public teleprinter network.
Network World. IDG Network World Inc. ISSN Retrieved 29 December Telex originated in Germany and rapidly expanded to other countries after World War II. Retrieved 2 February Almost every time, the messages amount to fewer than characters — what would become the limit of early text messages — and thus the concept for the perfect-length, rapid-fire 'short message' was born.
Short Message Service, the Creation of Personal Global Text Messaging. ISBN Introduction to CCITT Signalling System No.
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Text messages may be sent over a cellular network , or may also be sent via an Internet connection. The term originally referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service SMS. It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages using the Multimedia Messaging Service MMS containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji happy faces , sad faces, and other icons , and instant messenger applications usually the term is used when on mobile devices.
Text messages are used for personal, family, business and social purposes. Governmental and non-governmental organizations use text messaging for communication between colleagues. In the s, the sending of short informal messages became an accepted part of many cultures, as happened earlier with emailing. Like e-mail and voicemail and unlike calls in which the caller hopes to speak directly with the recipient , texting does not require the caller and recipient to both be free at the same moment; this permits communication even between busy individuals.
Text messages can also be used to interact with automated systems, for example, to order products or services from e-commerce websites, or to participate in online contests. Advertisers and service providers use direct text marketing to send messages to mobile users about promotions, payment due dates, and other notifications instead of using postal mail , email , or voicemail.
The service is referred to by different colloquialisms depending on the region. It may simply be referred to as a "text" in North America, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines, an "SMS" in most of mainland Europe, or an "MMS" or "SMS" in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia.
The sender of a text message is commonly referred to as a "texter". The electrical telegraph systems, developed in the early 19th century, used electrical signals to send text messages. In the late 19th century, the wireless telegraphy was developed using radio waves. In , the German Reichspost Reich postal service introduced the first " telex " service. The University of Hawaii began using radio to send digital information as early as , using ALOHAnet. Sitting at a typewriter at home, Hillebrand typed out random sentences and counted every letter, number, punctuation, and space.
Almost every time, the messages contained fewer than characters, thus giving the basis for the limit one could type via text messaging. It was further developed under the leadership of Kevin Holley and Ian Harris see Short Message Service. This was part of ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network and since GSM is based on this, it made its way to the mobile phone. Messages could be sent and received on ISDN phones, and these can send SMS to any GSM phone.
The possibility of doing something is one thing, implementing it another, but systems existed from that sent SMS messages to mobile phones [ citation needed ] compare ND-NOTIS. SMS messaging was used for the first time on 3 December ,  at the Three Tuns Public House in Reading, Berkshire  when Neil Papworth , a year-old test engineer for Sema Group in the UK  now Airwide Solutions ,  used a personal computer to send the text message " Merry Christmas " via the Vodafone network to the phone of Richard Jarvis,   who was at a party in Newbury, Berkshire , which had been organized to celebrate the event.
Modern SMS text messaging is usually messaging from one mobile phone to another. Finnish Radiolinja became the first network to offer a commercial person-to-person SMS text messaging service in When Radiolinja's domestic competitor, Telecom Finland now part of TeliaSonera also launched SMS text messaging in and the two networks offered cross-network SMS functionality, Finland became the first nation where SMS text messaging was offered on a competitive as well as on a commercial basis.
GSM was allowed [ by whom? Hence there is no "development" in the US in mobile messaging service. The GSM in the US had to use a frequency allocated for private communication services PCS — what the ITU frequency régime had blocked for DECT — Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications — feet range picocell, but survived.
American Personal Communications APC , the first GSM carrier in America, provided the first text-messaging service in the United States. Sprint Telecommunications Venture, a partnership of Sprint Corp. and three large cable-TV companies, owned 49 percent of APC. APC operated under the brand name of Sprint Spectrum and launched its service on 15 November , in Washington, D.
and in Baltimore, Maryland. Vice President Al Gore in Washington, D. made the initial phone-call to launch the network, calling Mayor Kurt Schmoke in Baltimore. Initial growth of text messaging worldwide was slow, with customers in sending on average only 0. However, not all text-messaging systems use SMS; some notable alternate implementations of the concept include J-Phone 's SkyMail and NTT Docomo 's Short Mail , both in Japan.
Text messaging is most often used between private mobile phone users, as a substitute for voice calls in situations where voice communication is impossible or undesirable e. Texting is also used to communicate very brief messages, such as informing someone that you will be late or reminding a friend or colleague about a meeting. As with e-mail, informality and brevity have become an accepted part of text messaging.
Some text messages such as SMS can also be used for the remote control of home appliances. It is widely used in domotics systems. Some amateurs have also built their own systems to control some of their appliances via SMS.
A Flash SMS is a type  of text message that appears directly on the main screen without user interaction and is not automatically stored in the inbox. It can be useful in cases such as an emergency e. Short message services are developing very rapidly throughout the world. SMS is particularly popular in Europe, Asia excluding Japan; see below , United States, Australia, and New Zealand and is also gaining influence in Africa.
Popularity has grown to a sufficient extent that the term texting used as a verb meaning the act of mobile phone users sending short messages back and forth has entered the common lexicon. Young Asians consider SMS as the most popular mobile phone application.
It is a very influential and powerful tool in the Philippines, where the average user sends 10—12 text messages a day. The Philippines alone sends on average over 1 billion text messages a day,  more than the annual average SMS volume of the countries in Europe, and even China and India.
Similarly, in , text messaging played a primary role in the implication of former Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick in an SMS sex scandal. In many markets, the service is comparatively cheap. The service is enormously profitable to the service providers. There are also free SMS services available, which are often sponsored, that allow sending  and receiving  SMS from a PC connected to the Internet.
Users on these plans send on average SMS messages every month. Text messaging has become so popular that advertising agencies and advertisers are now jumping into the text messaging business. Services that provide bulk text message sending are also becoming a popular way for clubs, associations, and advertisers to reach a group of opt-in subscribers quickly.
Research suggests that Internet-based mobile messaging will have grown to equal the popularity of SMS in , with nearly 10 trillion messages being sent through each technology. Research has shown that women are more likely than men to use emoticons in text messages.
Of many texting trends, a system known as microblogging has surfaced, which consists of a miniaturized blog, inspired mainly by people's tendency to jot down informal thoughts and post them online. They consist of websites like Twitter and its Chinese equivalent Weibo 微博. As of , both of these websites were popular. In some countries, text messages can be used to contact emergency services. In the UK, text messages can be used to call emergency services only after registering with the emergency SMS service.
This service is primarily aimed at people who, because of disability, are unable to make a voice call. It has recently been promoted as a means for walkers and climbers to call   emergency services from areas where a voice call is not possible due to low signal strength. In the US, there is a move to require both traditional operators and Over-the-top messaging providers to support texting to Since the location of a handset is known, systems can alert everyone in an area that the events have made impossible to pass through e.
an avalanche. A similar system, known as Emergency Alert , is used in Australia to notify the public of impending disasters through both SMS and landline phone calls. These messages can be sent based on either the location of the phone or the address to which the handset is registered. SMS messages are used in some countries as reminders of medical appointments. A recent study by Sims and colleagues examined the outcomes of 24, outpatient appointments scheduled in mental health services in South-East London.
US-based cloud radiology information system vendor AbbaDox includes this in their patient engagement services. Short codes are special telephone numbers, shorter than full telephone numbers, that can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones. There are two types of short codes: dialling and messaging. SMS gateway providers facilitate the SMS traffic between businesses and mobile subscribers, being mainly responsible for carrying mission-critical messages, SMS for enterprises, content delivery and entertainment services involving SMS, e.
Considering SMS messaging performance and cost, as well as the level of text messaging services, SMS gateway providers can be classified as resellers of the text messaging capability of another provider's SMSC or offering the text messaging capability as an operator of their own SMSC with SS7.
Many operate text-in services on short codes or mobile number ranges, whereas others use lower-cost geographic text-in numbers. SMS is widely used for delivering digital content, such as news alerts, financial information, pictures, GIFs, logos and ringtones. Such messages are also known as premium-rated short messages PSMS. Services like 82ASK and Any Question Answered have used the PSMS model to enable rapid response to mobile consumers' questions, using on-call teams of experts and researchers.
In November , amidst complaints about unsolicited charges on bills, major mobile carriers in the US agreed to stop billing for PSMS in 45 states, effectively ending its use in the United States. Outside the United States, premium short messages are increasingly being used for "real-world" services. For example, some vending machines now allow payment by sending a premium-rated short message, so that the cost of the item bought is added to the user's phone bill or subtracted from the user's prepaid credits.
Recently, premium messaging companies have come under fire from consumer groups due to a large number of consumers racking up huge phone bills. A new type of free-premium or hybrid-premium content has emerged with the launch of text-service websites. These sites allow registered users to receive free text messages when items they are interested in go on sale, or when new items are introduced. An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers international mobile number format, e.
Additionally, long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers. The use of text messaging for workplace purposes has grown significantly during the mids decade. As companies seek competitive advantages, many employees are using new technology, collaborative applications, and real-time messaging such as SMS, instant messaging , and mobile communications to connect with teammates and customers.
Some practical uses of text messaging include the use of SMS for confirming delivery or other tasks, for instant communication between a service provider and a client e. Several universities have implemented a system of texting students and faculties campus alerts.
One such example is Penn State. One regulation specifically governing the use of text messaging in financial-services firms engaged in stocks, equities, and securities trading is Regulatory Notice , Supervision of Electronic Communications, December , issued to member firms by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority FINRA. In Regulatory Notice , FINRA noted that "electronic communications", "e-mail", and "electronic correspondence" may be used interchangeably and can include such forms of electronic messaging as instant messaging and text messaging.
In the US, there is a move to require both traditional operators and Over-the-top messaging providers to support texting to Main page Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate. During the Victorian era , medical authors introduced the terms " true hermaphrodite " for an individual who has both ovarian and testicular tissue, "male pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with testicular tissue, but either female or ambiguous sexual anatomy, and "female pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with ovarian tissue, but either male or ambiguous sexual anatomy. October 25, What evidence is there that you can grow up psychologically healthy with intersex genitals without "normalizing" surgeries?Archived from the original on 17 February Many users have unlimited "mobile-to-mobile" minutes, high monthly minute allotments, or unlimited service. Female congenital anomalies of the genitalia, including intersex and DSD. Retrieved 5 April The Independent. Anne Fausto-Sterling and her co-authors broadly said in that "[a]dding the estimates of all known causes of nondimorphic sexual development suggests that approximately 1.